Gift Guide: Musical Gifts for Her

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From stocking fillers to presents under the tree, try some of these musical gift ideas for the woman in your life.

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For the retro stylist

Reminding us of the stylish and much adored radios from the 50s and 60s, this retro version has modern technology inside to provide top quality digital sound. Accesses FM, MW and LW bands and features a handy foldaway carry handle. £79.99
Click here to see more

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For the jazz lover

Immerse yourself in the golden era of jazz. Discover three decades of wireless classics from some of the great jazz singers and composers, including Louis Armstrong, Ella Fitzgerald and Glen Miller. Your foot is sure to start tapping to these infectious rhythms from a variety of jazz styles.
Click here to see more

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For the radio lover

Over 7 decades, nearly 3,000 distinguished people have been stranded on BBC Radio 4’s Desert Island, accompanied by only eight records, one book and a luxury. This fascinating, extensively illustrated book tells the story through a selection of castaways. £25.00
Click here to see more

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For the chocoholic

Perfect for a dinner party gift, or just for sheer self-indulgence, these inviting boxes each contain 8 delicious Belgian milk chocolates expertly shaped into pianos. £5.99
Click here to see more

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For the Downton Abbey fan

Re-live your favourite Downton moments in award-winning composer John Lunn’s original music for the series. Comprising 36 tracks spanning all six series, performed by The Chamber Orchestra of London.
Click here to see more

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For the tea-time queen

A colourful collage of musical motifs adorn these fine bone china mugs to brighten up your tea breaks. £9.99
Click to see more

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For the sparkle lover

Add some lyrical beauty to your outfit with these pretty silver-plated earrings set with sparkling Swarovski elements. Featuring an elegant, stylised treble clef design to touch the heart of any music lover, they are presented boxed for that perfect gift. £24.99
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Gift Guide: Musical Gifts for Him

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Finding gifts for men is notoriously difficult. This Christmas, we’ve come up with a guide with something for every man on your list.

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For the dandy

This silk bow tie is printed with manuscript music by Mozart, ready to complete the outfit of any dapper gentleman. £17.99
Click here to shop now

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For the musical connoisseur

The Spy’s Choirbook from Obsidian Records features music from a book produced by Petrus Alamire, a spy in the court of Henry VIII. Performed by Alamire, the CD was awarded Best Early Music disc at the Gramophone Magazine Awards 2015. £15.00
Click here to shop now

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For the barbecue king

Perfect for barbecuing or cooking up a storm in the kitchen, this apron is printed with music and lyrics of the Lionel Bart song Food Glorious Food, famously performed in the musical ‘Oliver’. £14.99
Click here to shop now

gm375-500For the beginner musician

Perfect for the aspiring musician, this ukulele starter set has everything you need to get going with a new instrument. Includes an attractive handcrafted matt finish wooden ukulele, a black nylon carry case and a 32-page Absolute Beginners Ukulele book with step-by-step instructions and lots of practical advice and tips. £34.99
Click here to shop now

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For the nostalgia lover

This 2 CD collection showcases Frank Sinatra’s cool, swinging anthems and finest crooning songs of love and heartbreak. £9.99
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For the vintage record lover

This 4-in-1 music centre is compact enough to fit just about anywhere, but will play all your treasured records, tapes and CDs in glorious stereo. It features a 3-speed turntable, CD Player, cassette player and FM/MW Radio, all in a stylish vintage design. £125.00
Click here to shop now

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For the man who has everything

A side-splitting selection of one-liners, comic definitions, yarns and witty quotes from the world of music. A great stocking filler. £4.99
Click here to shop now

Top 10 Pieces of Christmas Classical Music

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Christmas: a time for peace on earth and good will to men. The streets twinkle with fairy lights and the shops are filled with festive tunes. Some of our deepest Christmas associations often come from the music which defines the season. We’ve put together a musical journey through the history of Christmas classical music from the medieval era to the present day.

angel-1004111_960_7201. Ther is No Rose – Anonymous

This beautiful medieval carol compares the Virgin Mary to a rose. Its stunningly simple lyrics are set to music in the Trinity Carol Roll. This recording was made in Trinity College library by Alamire.

2. Christmas Oratorio – JS Bach

Bach’s Christmas Oratorio is one of the best known pieces of classical music performed at Christmas. Written for Christmas 1734, the Oratorio features six sections, each intended to be performed on a different Christmas feast day.

3. Christmas Cantata – Alessandro Scarlatti

Scarlatti wrote for Rome, at the very centre of the Catholic church, where, long before in the seventh century, the custom was established in which mass is celebrated three times as the Pope began to celebrate the Christmas office in a number of churches around Rome. His Christmas Cantata would have been used during these religious celebrations.

4. Messiah – GF Handel

Composed in 1741, Handel’s Messiah was notably written with a libretto in English. The text was compiled from the King James Bible and the Book of Common Prayer. The Messiah is now one of the most frequently performed pieces of choral music ever written.


5. The Shepherd’s Farewell – Hector Berlioz

The Shepherd’s Farewell is part of Berlioz’ oratorio L’enfance du Christ. The musical narrative is based on the flight of the holy family into Egypt. The Shepherd’s Farewell was originally written as a work for organ, but Berlioz soon turned it into a choral piece for Christmas.


6. The Dance of the Sugar Plum Fairy – Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky

The Nutcracker is a charming ballet set on Christmas Eve with music composed by Tchaikovsky. His Dance of the Sugar Plum Fairy is one of the many highlights from this joyful festive experience.


7. This is the Truth Sent from Above – Trad / arr. Ralph Vaughan Williams

This traditional tune was revived and arranged Ralph Vaughan Williams. The composer discovered the tune from a folk singer who had learned it through the oral tradition. Vaughan Williams liked it so much that he also used it to open his Fantasia of Christmas Carols, written in 1912.


8. A Ceremony of Carols – Benjamin Britten

Britten wrote A Ceremony of Carols in 1942 while he was on a boat, travelling from the US to England. The texts are taken from a series of medieval poems, set to music for three treble voices and a harp.


9. O Magnum Mysterium – Morten Lauridsen

Written in 1994, American composer Morten Lauridsen’s setting of O Magnum Mysterium has quickly become a classic work of choral music for Christmas. The words come from a responsorial chant from the Matins of Christmas, and contemplate the wonderful mystery of Christ’s birth.


10. Winter Lullabies – Howard Goodall

The composer Howard Goodall is perhaps best known for his music written for television shows including The Vicar of Dibley and Blackadder. Winter Lullabies, for solo harp and boys’ voices, comprises six loosely-interwoven movements, and despite Thomas Campion’s jovial toast to the delights of winter with which it begins, the texts mainly centre on the hardship and the challenges of winter, particularly for mothers and their infants.

If you’re looking for some festive classics this holiday season, try our collection of music for Christmas. Click here to see more.

New arrivals for Autumn and Winter

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We’ve recently made some exciting additions to our unique range of music and gifts. From new CDs to vintage-style radios, mugs to jewellery, we hope there’ll be something for everyone. Click on the links below to discover more.

New titles

cdg1291-booklet-cover-webAnything Goes
This collection of hits of the 50s from Ella Fitzgerald, ‘The First Lady of Song’, epitomises the twentieth-century jazz scene. Let her enchanting voice transport you back in time. £9.99

gm513-500Downton Abbey: The Ultimate Collection
Missing your favourite TV show? Re-live your favourite Downton moments in award-winning composer John Lunn’s original music for the series. Comprising 36 tracks spanning all six series, performed by The Chamber Orchestra of London. £9.99


Homeware

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This versatile shelf can be mounted vertically or horizontally and is perfect for displaying your favourite CDs and DVDs. £39.99

Winchester Radio
Tune into your favourite radio stations, with this 50s-style radio that looks like it’s just stepped out of the past, but contains the latest transistor technology to ensure a 21st-century sound. £79.99


Jewellery

gm517-500 gm518-500We’ve added two pairs of earrings to our whimsical musical jewellery collection. The Treble Clef and Heart of Clefs earrings are both silver-plated and feature Swarovski crystals. Both £24.99. Click here to see our full collection of jewellery and cuff links.

 

The Jazz Collection

We’re thrilled to be offering a new collection of jazz-themed homeware. The range includes a monochrome design bone china mug (£9.99) and set of coasters (£5.99), and a mug (£9.99) and coaster set (£5.99) in blue.

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And finally…

We know it’s really too early to talk about Christmas, but early bird shoppers might enjoy O Come All Ye Faithful, our new CD of favourite Christmas carols, or this charming set of musical chime bar crackers, guaranteed to liven up any Christmas dinner! £9.99 and £22.50

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Jane Austen’s Musical World

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Jane Austen, by James Andrews“Aunt Jane began her day with music – for which I conclude she had a natural taste; … She practised regularly every morning – She played very pretty tunes, I thought … Much that she played from was manuscript, copied out by herself – and so neatly and correctly, that it was as easy to read as print.”
– From the memoirs of Jane Austen’s niece Caroline, 1867

Music, and the piano in particular, were at the heart of Jane Austen’s everyday life. At the time, it was common for women to receive a musical education and playing or singing were seen as talents which could modestly be displayed in public. Men usually seem to have taken a back seat when it came to private musical performance, choosing instead to watch and hear the women of their acquaintance.

In Mansfield Park, for example, Mary Crawford ‘tripped off to the instrument, leaving Edmund looking after her in an ecstasy of admiration of all her many virtues.’ In Pride and Prejudice, Austen reveals the complex associations of piano playing by comparing Elizabeth’s performance to her sister Mary’s:

Jane Austen's home in Chawton

“Her performance was pleasing, though by no means capital. After a song or two, and before she could reply to the entreaties of several that she would sing again, she was eagerly succeeded at the instrument by her sister Mary, who having, in consequence of being the only plain one in the family, worked hard for knowledge and accomplishments, was always impatient for display.

Mary had neither genius nor taste; and though vanity had given her application, it had given her likewise a pedantic air and conceited manner, which would have injured a higher degree of excellence than she had reached. Elizabeth, easy and unaffected, had been listened to with much more pleasure, though not playing half so well.”

For Austen herself, however, music was not merely a form of entertainment but a way of life. The Jane Austen Memorial Trust holds eight volumes of music at her house in Chawton. Three books are entirely in manuscript – hand written, on pre-ruled music paper bought from London dealers. The second two of these three are mainly in the hand of Jane Austen herself.

Excerpt from Sonata No. 2 by Johann Sterkel

The musical content of these volumes is varied. Songs, keyboard works (both solo and duet) and chamber music from the core of the collection and a drawn from a variety of sources. The contents are typical of domestic music-making of the period – and consequently include hardly any music by composers famous today.

In Jane Austen’s day, Pleyel and Sterkel were more famous than Haydn and Mozart, their music often more accessible via successful printing and distribution businesses than those of their more talented colleagues with their high-powered court appointments and operatic commissions.

Excerpt from Sonatina No. 1 by Ignaz Pleyel

In Jane Austen’s novels, the finest musicians are those with a real musicality and love of music, not those who have merely learned a good technique. However, she also frequently uses music as a metaphor to provide lessons. In Pride and Prejudice, we learn that Elizabeth naturally plays well, but we also learn that she would play really well if she were to apply herself:

“My fingers,” said Elizabeth, “do not move over this instrument in the masterly manner which I see so many women’s do. They have not the same force or rapidity, and do not produce the same expression. But then I have always supposed it to be my own fault—because I will not take the trouble of practising. It is not that I do not believe my fingers as capable as any other woman’s of superior execution.”

Listen to more of Jane Austen’s musical world in Jane Austen Entertains and Jane Austen Piano Favourites.

Anne Boleyn, Lover of Music

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Anneboleyn2On 19th May 1536, Queen Anne Boleyn was taken from her cell in the Tower of London to a wooden scaffold, where a French swordsman awaited her. Henry believed that an axe was too common an instrument to behead the Queen of England. After speaking briefly to the crowd who had gathered to watch the spectacle, Anne tucked her hair out of the way of the sword, and was beheaded in one stroke.

Apparently unable to bear Henry VIII a son, she was accused of multiple charges of adultery with five men, including her brother George and the lutenist Mark Smeaton. No one knows whether Anne was in fact unfaithful or not, but it is certain that by 1536 Henry had his eyes on another young woman, Jane Seymour.

The story of Anne’s death is a sad one, but her life was one of intrigue, excitement and colour. At a young age she joined the household of Margaret of Austria (the daughter of Maximilian I, the Holy Roman Emperor). Margaret was famous as a patron of music, and Anne would have had early exposure to high-quality music making.

Anne was soon placed in the French court, where she attended Henry VIII’s sister Mary. While she was there, it is likely that she came into contact with Claudin de Sermisy, a composer whose piece Jouyssance seems to have been written with Anne in mind. The poet who wrote the lyrics to the piece, Clement Marot, was also patronised by the French court, and he is known to have presented Anne with a personalised copy of his most famous work.

In Jouyssance, the lyrics read: “I will give you pleasure, my dear, and thus I will ensure that what you hope for ends well… but if it weighs you down, appease your hurting heart: everything will be good for those who wait.” This seems exactly to describe Anne and Henry’s situation during their extended courtship between 1526 and their marriage in 1533.

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A reference to Anne Boleyn in MS 1070 Royal College of Music

Anne was herself a great lover of music. The Royal College of Music in London contains a manuscript music book which is thought to be owned and used by Anne Boleyn herself. The evidence for this comes in the middle of the book, where an early 16th century inscription reads “Mistres A Bolleyne nowe thus.” “Now thus” was the motto of Anne Boleyn’s father, and the fact that she is styled “mistress” suggests that this was penned before she became Queen in 1533.

Anne’s own talents also apparently included the composition of poetry. The song “O Deathe rock me asleep” is said to have been written by Anne whilst she was awaiting her execution in the tower of London. The lyrics are both vivid and tragic: “Alone in prison strong / I wait my destiny. / Woe worth this cruel hap that I / Must taste this misery.”

The contents of the Royal College of Music manuscript, along with an Elizabethan setting of “O Deathe rock me asleep”, have been recorded by Alamire on the disc Anne Boleyn’s Songbook, released by Obsidian Records. This year, the CD was nominated for a BBC Music Magazine award.

Click here to see more about Anne Boleyn’s Songbook.

Music in the Age of Shakespeare

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2016 marks 400 years since the death of the great playwright William Shakespeare, who died on April 23rd 1616. For the majority of his career, Shakespeare was working at a time when England was under the rule of Queen Elizabeth I, a great patron of the arts. Elizabeth was particularly fond of music and was a talented musician herself, much like her father Henry VIII before her.

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“Greensleeves” is attributed to King Henry VIII. Hear more on Songs for William Shakespeare.

Her patronage encouraged the genius of composers such as William Byrd, Thomas Tallis and Orlando Gibbons. Outside the court chapels, a popular music scene was also thriving, with composers such as Thomas Morley writing charming tunes to lyrics written in English, which were often very witty.

“The Frog Galliard” by Thomas Morley, from Great Music from the Court of Elizabeth I.

Working in this environment, it’s no surprise that Shakespeare’s plays and sonnets are full of references to music and song. Similarly, although the stage directions in the earliest versions of Shakespeare’s texts can be extremely limited, they nevertheless often specify which musical instruments are to be deployed at specific points.

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In Antony and Cleopatra, for example, an important distinction is made between the wood and string instruments; woodwind is frequently associated with Cleopatra and with the “exotic” land of Egypt, whilst strings represent the logical Romans. It’s interesting to note that Samuel Barber uses a similar distinction in his famous operatic setting of the play.

There are several plays which include whole songs written by Shakespeare. Many of them have been put to music, and some of the most intriguing settings are by Shakespeare’s contemporary Thomas Morley. It’s fascinating to think that these songs may have been heard in early performances of Shakespeare’s plays during his lifetime. For example, “O Mistress Mine” is a song from Twelfth Night sung by the clown Feste. It acts as an exhortation for lovers to live in the moment, since “present mirth hath present laughter, what’s to come is still unsure.” Listen to Thomas Morley’s setting:

“O Mistress Mine” by Thomas Morley, from All the World’s a Stage.

This performance is based on the instrumental version in Thomas Morley’s book of Consort Lessons (1599), where it is most likely a setting by Morley himself of an old tune, although there is a more elaborate version by Byrd in the Fitzwilliam Virginal Book.

The Elizabethans believed that the world was governed by the “harmony of the spheres”, that is, a musical harmony, inaudible to fallen human ears, by which the universe functioned. This concept of musicality lay at the heart of the Elizabethan world view, and consequently informed much of the cultural production of the day. For Shakespeare, this was a particularly powerful idea and perhaps helps to explain both why there are so many metaphors of tuning and harmony in his plays, and why his works have been reinterpreted in music again and again over the last 400 years.

The Renaissance diagram below shows the Muses (who inspire poets, composers and artists), the planets and the musical ratios which relate to them:

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The language of flowers in music through the ages

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Flowers have intrigued artists, writers and musicians for centuries. Their colour, liveliness and fragility mean that they have been the direct inspiration for poetic and musical works from the medieval era to the present day. To coincide with National Gardening Week 2016, we’ve picked out some of our favourite examples.


Image: via Stefan Lochner/WikipediaRoses
Since the middle ages, the rose has been a potent symbol, used in both sacred and secular contexts as a metaphor for women. In the medieval era in particular, the rose was closely associated with the Virgin Mary. In the carol “There is no rose”, the Virgin Mary is described as the “rose that bare Jesu”. The language is compelling and beautiful: “for in that rose contained was / Heaven and earth in little space”. Listen to it below:

Find this track and others on “Deo Gracias Anglia: Medieval English Carols”


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The beautiful amaryllis flower is celebrated in the music of Giulio Caccini, whose madrigal setting “Amarilli mia bella” is one of his best known works. According to classical legend, Amaryllis was a nymph who fell in unrequited love with the shepherd Alteo. All Alteo searched for was the most beautiful flower in the world. Desperate to please him, Amaryllis pierced her breast with an arrow until a red flower sprang up from her blood on the ground. Ever since, the amaryllis has stood for both determination and exceptional beauty.


Viola_gracilis_140-8541Violets

In Scarlatti’s 1694 opera, Pirro e Demetrio, the hero sings a playful aria in which he addresses a patch of violet flowers wondering whether he will find his love requited. The accompaniment is light and fanciful, echoing the fragile nature of these tiny flowers. Violets are often thought to represent modesty, but they are also associated with a love that is fragile and delicate; Scarlatti leaves it up to the audience’s imagination as to which characteristic he is invoking in this aria.


crysanthemum-flowers-japanese-artChrysanthemums

Although Puccini is best known for his operatic classics such as Madama Butterfly and La Boheme, he also composed some beautiful chamber music. One example is his string quartet, Crisantemi, a melancholy and moving work that is rarely heard today. The title means “chrysanthemums” and was reportedly written in one night as a response to the death of the Duke of Savoy. The chrysanthemum is the Italian flower of mourning and they are often placed on tomb stones.


Familiar_garden_flowers_(Plate_10)_(7402383960)Lavender

Lavender is valued for its calming properties, and it is traditionally associated with purity and silence. This makes is a particularly appropriate flower for a song intended to rock children to sleep, such as “Lavender’s Blue”. Versions of this nursery song date back to the 17th century, and there are numerous recordings in various styles, including a well-loved version by Donald Peers.


Gardens, flora and fauna have been celebrated in music for centuries, from the beautiful melodies of the middle ages to the foot-tapping tunes of the 1940s and ’50s. Listen to a couple of examples from either end of the spectrum; “Sumer is Icumen In”, a tune first composed in the mid-13th century, and “Rosy Apples”, a jolly celebration of the fruit that keeps the doctor away by Evelyn Knight.

Hear more medieval music for the outdoors in “A Garden of Music”

Hear more classic tracks in “Music for a Lady Gardener”

Bach and the organ at Easter

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JS Bach and music for Easter have become almost synonymous. At this time of year, concert halls everywhere echo with Bach’s Easter Oratorio and his two stunning settings of Christ’s Passion. This year, Bach’s birthday (21st March) also falls in Holy Week.

Image: via Wikipedia

Image: via Wikipedia

Even Bach’s works which are not nominally intended to celebrate Easter are full of a joy, intensity and dynamism that seem perfectly suited to the festival of Christ’s crucifixion and resurrection. This is particularly true of his works for organ, an instrument to which he dedicated much of his life and talent.

In this blog post, we hope to take you beyond the usual Easter pieces from Bach and introduce a few alternatives for your Easter morning listening. Here are some of our favourite Bach works for organ:


Toccata and Fugue in D Minor BMV 565

This work by Bach probably constitutes the most famous piece of organ music ever written. It might surprise you, therefore, to know that some musicians believe the piece was not originally written for the organ; some people don’t even think it was written by Bach! Nevertheless, everyone will be familiar with its dramatic opening:


“The Great Fantasia”

Bach’s fantasia and fugue in G minor (BMV 542) was named “The Great Fantasia” in order to distinguish it from the “little” fantasia and fugue in the same key, which is much shorter. It opens with a particularly dramatic and free fantasia, before settling into a virtuosic fugue that reportedly derives its theme from a Dutch folk song.


Prelude and Fugue in C Major 

Bach’s prelude in C major is written in a cheerful and lilting style, whilst the fugue is a masterpiece of counterpoint, a musical device which Bach helped to develop. In this work, Bach makes use of the organ’s capacity for lightness and joy, proving it an instrument capable of something other than the thunderous drama it is usually associated with.


Toccata, Adagio and Fugue in C Major

Not to be confused with the above, this work in C major is similarly joyful and even more virtuosic. The adagio includes a haunting solo accompanied by a repeated motif played by the feet, whilst the fugue dances along in triple metre. All this is fronted by the wonderful toccata. Listen to a sample:


Passacaglia and Fugue in C Minor

For something a bit different, try a Bach passacaglia. Robert Schumann once said of this work that its variations are “intertwined so ingeniously that one can never cease to be amazed.” Passacaglia is a term taken from the Spanish pasar (to walk) and calle (street). Bach’s version has 20 different variations and is followed by a double fugue, a form where two subjects are developed simultaneously. The effect is complex but magical.


For more Bach for Easter morning, or any other day of the year, try Bach Great Organ Works performed by Martin Souter on an original 1732 organ. Click here to see more.

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Women composers through the ages

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The month of March is designated Women’s History Month and also plays host to Mothering Sunday and International Women’s Day. At The Gift of Music, we’re all for celebrating wonderful women, and we’ve put together a list of female composers from the medieval era to the present day.

Women composers have often been sidelined by history, but there’s actually a strong tradition of women writing beautiful music in both secular and sacred contexts. Here are some of the greats:

1. Hildegard of Bingen (1098-1179)

Image: via Wikipedia

Image: via Wikipedia

Abbess Hildegard was one of the extraordinary creative personalities of the middle ages. In her youth she saw vivid mystical visions, and she turned these into poetry and music. Both her music and lyrics are extraordinarily free by the standards of the time; Hildegard once wrote ‘my new song must float like a feather on the breath of God.’ Her sacred songs celebrate the range of the virtuosic female voice, which is extremely rare in early music.

Listen to a sample of Hildegard’s O Vos Angeli below

Click here to discover more of Hildegard’s music in Music from a Medieval Abbey


2. Francesca Caccini (1587-1641)

Image: via Wikipedia

Image: via Wikipedia

Born in the city of Florence, Italy, at the beginning of the Baroque era, Francesca Caccini was a prolific composer of chamber and stage music. She was employed by the wealthy Medici family and by 1614 she had become their highest paid musician. She produced a series of works for enormous pageants and elaborate staged performances, and she is credited with producing the earliest opera ever written by a woman. Sadly, however, very little of her work survives today.


3. Fanny Mendelssohn (1805-1847)

Image: via Wikipedia

Image: via Wikipedia

Often overlooked in favour of her more famous brother, Fanny Mendelssohn composed a huge number of works over the course of her life. Her piano music was sometimes published under Felix Mendelssohn’s name and much of it is written in a similar style. In fact, some claim that Fanny was composing “songs without words” before her brother made them famous. It’s said that when Queen Victoria met Felix Mendelssohn, she proposed singing Italien, her favourite piece of his, which the composer then had to admit was actually by his sister.


4. Amy Beach (1867-1944)

Image: via Wikipedia

Image: via Wikipedia

Amy Beach was the first successful woman composer in the United States. Originally an acclaimed pianist, after her marriage (to a man 24 years older than herself) she agreed to limit her public performances to two recitals a year, and devoted herself more fully to her composing. She produced large-scale works, including her well-known Gaelic Symphony and Mass in E-flat Minor. The latter became the first piece by a woman to be performed by the Handel and Haydn Society, well-known for its conservatism.


5. Judith Weir (b.1954)

Image: via BCMG

Image: via BCMG

Judith Weir is one of the best known women composers working today. Growing up, she was taught by Sir John Tavener before studying composition with Robin Holloway at the University of Cambridge. She is best known for her operatic works, which include Blond Eckbert and Armida. Her compositions often draw on stories from Medieval history or her homeland of Scotland.